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Author: HangPC2

Pakaian/Aksesori/Senjata/Pengangkutan/Gaya Hidup Masyarakat Melayu Zaman Silam

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Post on 16-3-2006 10:36 AM |All posts
Originally posted by mok_nik at 15-3-2006 09:12 PM

ok ok  

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Post on 3-4-2006 12:06 PM |All posts

Pakaian/Aksesori/Senjata/Pengangkutan/Gaya Hidup Masyarakat Zaman Silam

1903 May 18th
London's first electric tram service starts
running between Tooting High Street and Westminster
The tram soon becomes more popular than the train

Lambeth Palace Road, Westminster, the Prince of Wales (King George V) is about to board the tram car
In the foreground can be seen some of the 100 firemen,
led by Captain Wells, that were on parade for the occasion.

[ Last edited by  sephia_liza at 3-4-2006 01:29 PM ]

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Post on 3-4-2006 12:14 PM |All posts

December 13th, 1902


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Post on 3-4-2006 12:33 PM |All posts


This photo shows three people standing in front of a mining cabin somewhere in the mountains of Colorado. It was taken near the mining town of Altman, Colorado in 1889.

This photo was taken about the year 1900 on a farm in Weld County. The woman was wearing a print dress and a white apron. The dress had ruffles at the yoke or shoulders.

This photo shows a well-dressed, middle-class family of the 1890s. They went to a photographer's studio to have the photo taken. They obviously wanted to look their best.

This photo was taken on a farm in eastern Colorado in the late 1800s. It shows the kind of clothes that farm families wore when they dressed up. The little girls are wearing matching print dresses. The man on the right, who is wearing a work shirt without a collar may have been a hired hand who worked on the farm. Farm families often included their house, outbuildings, and teams of horses in their family photos.

The woman in this photo is wearing a sports outfit. The photo was taken beside the lake in Denver's City Park about the year 1900.

The women in this 1930s photo are wearing print dresses or skirts and blouses. The boys are wearing knee-length play suites. The girl on the right is wearing a white dress.

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Post on 3-4-2006 12:40 PM |All posts

Roman Clothing

Roman men and women, like other Indo-Europeans, originally seem to have worn a large piece of wool, wrapped around themselves. After they  met people from Greece and Egypt, around 200 BC, they began to wear linen tunics (like T-shirts) under their wool robes, which was more comfortable

On their feet, both men and women wore leather sandals, or leather boots in cold weather.

In their hair, women wore wooden hairsticks or wooden combs, which they could also use to comb their hair.
For fancy occasions Roman men always continued to wear their wool robes over their tunics. They called these wool robes togas, and there were a lot of rules about how exactly a man should wear his toga, and who could have a stripe on his toga, and so forth, which helped to show who was rich and powerful and who was poor.

Women often wore more than one linen tunic, and a wool scarf or veil over their tunics, which they could pull over their heads if it was raining or cold.

As the drawing at below shows, respectable women also wore a long cloak, called a palla, over their tunic and stola when they went outside. This was rectangular in shape and was typically draped over the left shoulder, under the right arm and back across the body, carried by the left arm or thrown back again over the left shoulder. The palla could also be pulled up to cover the head, as shown in the above statue of Livia or in this depiction of a matron whose elegantly draped palla has a fringe.


Women relied mostly on elaborate hairstyles and jewelry rather than clothing to vary their appearance (see hairstyle 1, hairstyle 2, hairstyle 3, and hairstyle 4). In fact, an elaborate hairstyle is the only thing worn by this woman, who had herself sculpted as the goddess Venus (I like to imagine that this sculptor had an ironic sense of humor, since the contrast between her realistic portrait head and the prefab Venus-like body is so striking). Some of these styles were influenced by coiffures adopted by empresses, as for example the unusual hairstyle worn by Julia Domna during the latter half of the second century CE:, shown in this coin and in the two views of her sculpted head below. In fact, some lucky Roman girl of that period had a beautiful jointed ivory doll wearing a gold necklace, bracelets, and anklets, with a hairdo imitating that of the empress. This doll also proves that Barbie was not the first anatomically correct fashion doll

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Post on 3-4-2006 12:42 PM |All posts

Egyptian Clothing

Unlike most of the people of the ancient Mediterranean, the Egyptians did not wear just one or two big pieces of cloth wrapped around themselves in various ways. Instead, both men and women in Egypt wore tunics which were sewn to fit them. These tunics were like a long T-shirt which reached to the knees (for men) or to the ankles (for women). They were usually made of linen and were nearly always white. Most Egyptians, both men and women, do not seem to have covered their heads with any kind of cloth. They often went barefoot, but sometimes they wore leather sandals.
Men who were working outside usually wore short skirts instead of tunics, which may have been made as in Western Asia by winding a piece of cloth around your waist and legs.

Both men and women wore blue and green eyeshadow and black kohl eyeliner, when they were dressed up fancy. Men wore their hair short, and had no beards or mustaches, while women wore their hair down to their shoulders. Both men and women wore gold jewelry if they could afford to.

Old Kingdom

Short kilt, pleated and belted; shoulder-length hair; necklace.

Female servant
Simple sheath dress with wide shoulder straps; long hair, unplaited; jewellery

Middle Kingdom

Mid-calf kilt with a large apron that was probably stiffened to maintain its triangular shape; elaborate necklace

Female servant
Simple sheath dress, long unplaited hair

New Kingdom

Elaborate pleated garment; jewellery, wig and scented cone; sandals with the extended curled toes typical of the period.

Elaborate gown; jewellery; plaited wig, hair ornaments and scented cone.

The Royal Image : Clothing

When royalty, gods and goddesses were portrayed in statues, temple carvings and wall paintings, it was the beauty and self-confidence of the subject that was conveyed. Egyptian artistic conventions idealized the proportions of the body. Men are shown with broad shoulders, slim bodies, and muscular arms and legs; and women have small waists, flat stomachs and rounded busts. Both wear elegant clothing and jewellery, and stand tall with their heads held high. Their stately appearance commands the respect of all who gaze upon their portraits.

In the Old Kingdom, goddesses and elite women were portrayed wearing a sheath with broad shoulder straps. In the New Kingdom, they wore sheaths decorated with gold thread and colourful beadwork, and a type of sari; the sheath had only one thin strap. These dresses were made of linen, and decorated with beautifully coloured patterns and beadwork.  By the reign of Amenhotep III (1390-1352 B.C.), women's garments were made of very light see-through linen.

The men wore knee-length shirts, loincloths or kilts made of linen. Leather loincloths were not uncommon, however. Their garments were sometimes decorated with gold thread and colourful beadwork. The priests, viziers and certain officials wore long white robes that had a strap over one shoulder, and sem-priests (one of the ranks in the priesthood) wore leopard skins over their robes.

The Egyptian elite hired hairdressers and took great care of their hair. Hair was washed and scented, and sometimes lightened with henna. Children had their heads shaved, except for one or two tresses or a plait worn at the side of the head. This was called the sidelock of youth, a style worn by the god Horus when he was an infant.

(Above) Women wearing perfumed cones and wigs.
Painting: Winnifred Neeler, Royal Ontario Museum

(Above) Wig replica.
Royal Ontario Museum

Both men and women sometimes wore hairpieces, but wigs were more common. Wigs were made from human hair and had vegetable-fibre padding on the underside. Arranged into careful plaits and strands, they were often long and heavy. They may have been worn primarily at festive and ceremonial occasions, like in eighteenth-century Europe.
Priests shaved their heads and bodies to affirm their devotion to the deities and to reinforce their cleanliness, a sign of purification


Elite men and women enhanced their appearance with various cosmetics: oils, perfumes, and eye and facial paints. Both sexes wore eye make-up, most often outlining their lids with a line of black kohl. When putting on make-up, they used a mirror, as we do today.

The Egyptians used mineral pigments to produce make-up. Galena or malachite was ground on stone palettes to make eye paint. Applied with the fingers or a kohl pencil (made of wood, ivory or stone), eye paint emphasized the eyes and protected them from the bright sunlight. During the Old Kingdom, powdered green malachite was brushed under the eyes. Rouge to colour the face and lips was made from red ochre. Oils and fats were applied to the skin to protect it, mixed into perfumes, and added to the incense cones worn on top of the head. Both men and women wore perfumed cones on their heads. It has been suggested that the cones were made of tallow or fat, which melted gradually, releasing fragrance. No examples of the cones have been found.


From the earliest times, jewellery was worn by the elite for self-adornment and as an indication of social status. Bracelets, rings, earrings, necklaces, pins, belt buckles and amulets were made from gold and silver inlaid with precious stones such as lapis lazuli, turquoise, carnelian and amethyst. Faience and glass were also used to decorate pieces of jewellery.

The elegant design of Egyptian jewellery often reflected religious themes. Motifs included images of the gods and goddesses; hieroglyphic symbols; and birds, animals and insects that played a role in the creation myth. Commonly seen were the scarab; the Eye of Re; lotus and papyrus plants; the vulture and the hawk; the cobra; and symbols such as the Isis knot, the shen ring (symbol of eternity) and the ankh (symbol of life). A persons jewellery was placed in his or her grave to be used in the afterworld, along with many other personal items.

Before the beginning of the 1st Dynasty in 3100 BC, the Egyptians already had access to precious metals, and throughout the Dynastic Period they acquired it in ever increasing quantities, at first from the Eastern Desert and Nubia, later too as tribute and spoils of war from Syria and the north.
The Egyptian craftsmen used these enormous amounts of gold in many and varied ways - to gild lesser materials, to plate wood and stone, solid casting it into small statuary, hammering and cutting sheets of it into elements of religious and ceremonial furniture and funerary equipment. However, its most widespread use was in the production of jewelry, both that worn by the living and, in particular, that made expressly for the adornment of the corpse. Egyptian funerary beliefs required that the mummified body be bedecked with the finest products of the jewelry- maker's art and, whether for amulet or collar, pectoral or diadem, the first choice of material, indeed the prescribed material according to some of the funerary texts, was gold.

[ Last edited by  sephia_liza at 4-4-2006 10:39 AM ]

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Post on 3-4-2006 01:06 PM |All posts

Ancient Chinese clothing

Ming dynasty (1400's AD) painting by Tang Yin

People in China generally wore tunics (like long t-shirts). Women wore long tunics down to the ground, with belts, and men wore shorter ones down to their knees. Sometimes they wore jackets over their tunics. In the winter, when it was cold, people wore padded jackets over their tunics, and sometimes pants under them. In early China, poor people made their clothes of hemp or ramie. Rich people wore silk.

Most people in China, both men and women, wore their hair long. People said that you got your hair from your parents and so it was disrespectful to cut it.
During the Sui Dynasty, in the 500's AD, the emperor decided that all poor people had to wear blue or black clothes, and only rich people could wear colors.

In the Sung Dynasty, about 1100 AD, a fashion started at the emperor's court for women to bind their feet. Women thought that to be beautiful they needed little tiny feet, only about three inches long. They got these tiny feet by wrapping tight bandages around the feet of little girls, about five or six years old. The bandages were so tight they broke the girls

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Post on 6-4-2006 11:25 AM |All posts

Clothes of the wealthy

Originally posted by sephia_liza at 3-4-2006 12:42 PM

Unlike most of the people of the ancient Mediterranean, the Egyptians did not wear just one or two big pieces of cloth wrap ...

The wealthy did not show there wealth in wearing fancier,  expensive clothing, however they did wear gold jewelry, and there clothes were more transparent than those below them. Their robes were long and pleated, usually made of white linen

Clothes of Workers

Peasant women carrying tribute

Workers belonging to the lower classes wore only loincloths made of animal hide and linen. Loincloth is material that is fastened around the waist in a triangular fashion. They also wore simple tunic dresses. Slaves worked simply  naked.

Pharaoh's clothes
These are examples of Egypt pharaoh's clothing and other royal people's clothing.

The pharaohs of ancient Egypt had the best of the best. They were taken care of to a great extent. The pharaohs wore tons of gold and silver. Their way of using jewelry was for example, wearing jewelry around the waist and sometimes the jewelry protruded forth. The white cloth that the pharaohs wore covered their bodies unlike workers and scribes. Pharaohs didn't do much in government but considered godly and were treated with gold custom white clothes. They had the gold covered crowns that represents their kingdom, upper or lower

Clothing Worn by Egyptian Nobility

Clothing Worn in the Egyptian Priesthood

Clothing Worn by Egyptian Soldiers

[ Last edited by  sephia_liza at 6-4-2006 11:56 AM ]

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Post on 6-4-2006 11:36 AM |All posts


Originally posted by sephia_liza at 3-4-2006 12:42 PM

Unlike most of the people of the ancient Mediterranean, the Egyptians did not wear just one or two big pieces of cloth wrap ...

Much of Egyptian jewelry was made of gold. Even earplugs (picture 1) were made of highly valued gold
picture 1

picture 2

Every member of the family wore jewelry in Ancient Egypt (including men and children). It was extremely important to the people's religion and every day lives. Most jewelry was considered valuable and at least somewhat holy. Varying styles were sold in markets and villages. The pharaoh wore especially magnificent accessories. A vast majority of jewelry was made of highly crafted gold. Even objects as trivial as earplugs were solid, intricately patterned gold, showing that they took great pride in their beautiful art. Commoners usually were not able to afford very elaborate jewelry, therefore, it was usually worn more feely and commonly by the higher classes.

glass beads

In ancient times, stones were not always available or affordable for jewelry making. In these cases, the Egyptians developed the ability to make glass beads that closely resembled semi-precious stones, also known as "fabulous fakes." Bead-making originated around 4000BC and is supposed to have originated in Egypt, although it later prospered in Mesopotamia. The Old English word "bead" actually means "to pray". This suggests that the beads were considered holy and magical. Over time, these "fabulous fakes" became more intricate in ways such as having color added. The initial ingredients for glass beads were sand, soda and lime. Adding copper to this concoction resulted in a green stone. If a blue stone was needed, cobalt was added. Tin made a milky white stone, while the addition of gold resulted in a red stone. The glass beads of Ancient Egypt were considered of the highest quality in the ancient world and were soon exported by Phoenician traders all over the world.

finger rings

In Ancient Egypt, simple finger rings of horn or stone were common, even in lesser folk. Small strings of beads, gold foil bands and copper wires were also worn on the finger. These wire bands were brought into great popularity when a scarab beetle was hung on the wire before it was twisted shut. Some of the finest of these rings that have been found were owned by Princess Sithathoriunet. The scarab beetles wings are inlaid with turquoise and lapis lazuli, its thorax with cornelian, its head with green stone and its legs with cornelian and a white stone. Other elaborate rings include a pair having gold bands and elongated oval bezels. A bezel is the metal casing around a stone or the main element

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Post on 6-4-2006 11:47 AM |All posts

Egyptians Soldier Weapons

Originally posted by sephia_liza at 3-4-2006 12:42 PM

Unlike most of the people of the ancient Mediterranean, the Egyptians did not wear just one or two big pieces of cloth wrap ...

Battle Axes


Swords, Spears and Shields


Egyptian Helmets


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Post on 6-4-2006 12:05 PM |All posts


Egyptian perfumes [9] were famous throughout the Mediterranean. Pliny describes a perfume which still had its full fragrance after eight years.
    Perfumes were mostly based on plants: the roots, blossoms or leaves of henna, cinnamon, turpentine, iris, lilies, roses, bitter almonds etc. were soaked in oil and sometimes cooked. The essence was extracted by squeezing, and oil was added to produce liquid perfumes, while creams and salves were the result of adding wax or fat. Many perfumes had more than a dozen ingredients.
    During the New Kingdom people were depicted carrying little cones in their hair, which are generally interpreted as having been made of solid perfume. But examinations of wigs and hair have shown little evidence of fatty residue.

Cosmetics are as old as vanity. In Egypt their use can be traced back almost to the earlist period of which burials have been found, and continues to the present day.

Cleanliness and personal appearance were highly regarded by the ancient Egyptians. For the priests in the service of the gods cleanliness was strictly prescribed. Not only did they have to wash several times a day, but they also had to be clean shaven all over, to keep at bay parasites, such as lice, eggs of which have been found in the hair of mummies. Water was plentiful, but there is little evidence that the ancient Egyptians used natural soaps or tooth powder. In a hot climate deodorants were much in demand. To repel body odour men and women alike were advised to rub pellets of ground carob(?) into the skin, or to place little balls of incense and porridge where limbs met.

Around 1400 BC three ladies of the court of Tuthmosis III were buried with costly royal funerary equipment, which included cosmetics. Two of the jars contained a cleansing cream made of oil and lime. Some prescriptions for body 'scrub' are given in the medical papyri

Unguent vases as found in the tomb of Tutankamon at Thebes
(Egyptian Museum, Cairo)

The 'red natron' was presumably natron tinted by an iron compound in the earth where the natron was extracted.
An allegedly successful remedy to treat wrinkles consisted of': gum of  frankincense I wax I; fresh moringa oil I; cyperus grass I; is ground finely and mixed with fermented plant juice. Apply daily.

A lady wiping her face. Relief of unknown provenance; 11th Dynasty
(British Museum, 1658)

A simple remedy of gum applied to the face after cleansing had a similar effect. If' the skin was marred by scars caused by burning, a special ointment was used to treat them and make them less obvious, as for example red ochre and kohl, ground and mixed with sycamore juice. An alternative treatment was a bandage of carob(?) and honey, or an ointment made of frankincense and honey.
Because of 'their healthy diet and the lack of sugar the Egyptians did not suffer from tooth decay, but their bread contained particles of sand from the grain and grit from the grinding stone, which caused their teeth to become excessively worn No evidence has been recovered to suggest that the Egyptians used a toothbrush in the manner of the miswak, a natural brush-cum-toothpaste from Salvadora  persica, a tree native to southern Egypt and the Sudan. The root has been used for dental care by the Muslims since the days of the Prophet (PPUH). To improve on their breath the Egyptians chewed herbs, or they gargled with milk. Perhaps they also chewed frankincense like their descendants in the last century
As in other civilizations, the appearance of the hair was of paramount importance not only because of the visual effect, but also because of 'the erotic symbolism conventionally conneted with hair. Men and women alike wore wigs made of 'human hair on festive occasions, but they also tried to keep their natural hair in good condition. Jars of what could be compared with 'setting lotion' have been found to contain a mixture of beeswax and resin. These were remedies for problems such as baldness and greying hair. To treat the latter, blood of a black ox or calf was boiled in oil to transfer the blackness of the animal to the greying hair, or the black horn of a gazelle was made into an unguent with oil to prevent grey hairs from appearing. These remedies are slightly more agreeable than another consisting of  putrid donkey's liver steeped in oil, though they all had the same magic effect. A far more efficient remedy would be an ointment made of juniper berries and two unidentified plants kneaded into a paste with oil and heated.  The natural colouring matter in the plants would rub off on the hair, and the astringent properties of juniper stimulate the scalp. In order to make the hair grow, chopped lettuce was placed on a bald patch, if the baldness occurred after an illness, or the head was anointed with equal parts of  fir oil and another oil or fat.
The toilet casket of any man or woman would contain a razor for removing body hair, although a number of  creams were sometimes used for the purpose. One such consisted of the boiled and crushed bones of a bird, mixed with fly dung, oil, sycamore juice, gum, and cucumber; this mixture would be heated and applied, presumably to be pulled off when cold, with the hair adhering to it.
The almond shape of the black Egyptian eyes was underlined by the application of black kohl or green malachite. Eyepaint was also considered as a treatment to cure or prevent eye diseases. A great number of prescriptions deal with preventing ingrowing eyelashes.
To cool the eyes a finely ground green mineral (jasper or serpentine) mixed with water was applied to the lids. Alternative preparations were ground carob(?) and fermented honey, or emmer grains steeped in water overnight. An  eye wash was prepared from ground celery and hemp.
Eyepaint for an overnight treatment made of kohl and goose fat or a paste was mixed from kohl, green eyepaint, lapis lazuli, honey and ochre in equal parts, applied to the lids. The green eyepaint was usually malachite, a green ore of copper; kohl was made of galena, a dark grey ore of lead. It w as kept in lumps in little bags of linen or leather and was ground on a palette to a fine powder. The powder was poured into vases or tube-shaped containers from which it was extracted with a thin stick. It was applied either with the moistened stick, as is done by Egyptian women today, or, for medicinal purposes as quoted above, mixed with some fatty matter.
Malachite was brought to the Nile Valley from the mountainous regions of Sinai, whereas galena was obtained either near Aswan in Upper Egypt or at the Red Sea coast. But both were also imported as luxury commodities from Asia and Arabia. However, no matter which remedy was employed, the Egyptians knew that nothing made the eyes brighter than falling in love: 'Like eyepaint is my desire. When I see you, it makes my eyes sparkle', says a girl in a love poem.
Some Egyptians appear to have dyed their fingernails, but the nature of the red colour used is unknown. It may have been henna. Red was also required to paint the lips. The lip gloss, possibly made of fat with red ochre or with one of the plants used for dyeing, was applied with a brush or spatula. Red colour was used to give glow to the cheeks. A rouge consisting of red ochre and fiat, possibly with a little gull resin, has survived: it was some four thousand years old. Rouge in the form of powder was marketed a few years ago as a product of ancient Egyptian origin. The recipe which inspired the manufacturers was presumably one of those used for the purpose of camouflaging a burn.

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Post on 8-4-2006 03:29 PM |All posts

Ancient Bronze Weapons

Originally posted by sephia_liza at 3-4-2006 01:06 PM
Ming dynasty (1400's AD) painting by Tang Yin

People in China generally wore tunics (like long t-shirts). Women wore  ...

Chinese bronze objects first appeared about six thousand years ago at the end of the Stone Period and the beginning of the Metal Age. Weapons made of bronze were predominant in China for about four thousand years at which point iron weapons became popular.
Here we show some pictures of ancient bronze weapons which have been excavated in China. Beautiful and historically interesting, they come from different ancient dynasties. Although the earliest of them dates from the Xia Dynasty (2100 BC - 1600 BC), it was during the Shang Dynasty (1600 BC - 1100 BC) that the technology of making bronze weapons was developed to a high level. Bronze weapons of excellent quality were produced throughout the following West Zhou Dynasty (1100 BC - 771 BC), the Spring and Autumn Period (770 BC - 476 BC) and the Waring States Period (475 BC - 221 BC). Most of the weapons unearthed today come from these time spans. Iron weapons began to appear toward the end of the Warring States Period and quickly came into general use. Both bronze and iron weapons were used during the Qin Dynasty (221 BC - 207 BC), but bronze weapons were soon eclipsed by those of iron. Although bronze was used much earlier than iron, more bronze weapons have been unearthed than iron because bronze decays or rusts much slower than iron when under the earth.

Ge: The most popular Chinese long weapon used in ancient times was the Ge. In the very beginning, people just tied a piece of stone on top of a staff as a weapon. When bronze was used, people made many beautiful Ge heads. In the ancient world, soldiers fought from "fighting wagons" using long weapons. Ge was very useful for this. When rider horse became popular, Ge was obsolete generally. Ge remained in use through the Three Kingdom Period (220 - 265).
Because Ge was the most popular weapon in the ancient, it is common that it means fighting or war. The importance and popularity of Ge are reflected in the Chinese character WU meaning "martial." This character is made up of two parts: one, ZHI, means "stop"; the other, GE, is usually translated as "fighting." "Martial," therefore, means to stop fighting. There a important Chinese idea is that martial arts is not for fighting, is for stop fighting.

The Ge heads shown here came from several different dynasties. Usually, one Ge would have been tied on top of a long staff but occasionally, two or three Ge  heads would be attached to one staff.

Zeng Hou double Ge Ji, Warring States Period,  total long 310cm, unearthed from Hubei province

Tenghao Ge, Spring and Autmn Period,
26cm, unearthed from Shandong province

Taibao Ge, West Zhou, 33cm, unearthed
from Henan province

Dragon grain Ge, Warring States Period,
unearth from Hunan

Shang Dynasty, bride grains Ge length 27.8cm,
unearthed from Henan province

Yan Zhao Wang's Ge, 25.2cm,  Warring
States Period, unearthed from Hebei province  


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Post on 12-4-2006 10:05 AM |All posts

Tolong asing balik macam asal sebab thread sephia berkaitan dengan sejarah dunia thread asal berkaitan alam melayu..

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Post on 12-4-2006 11:58 AM |All posts


Originally posted by HangPC2 at 12-4-2006 10:05 AM

Tolong asing balik macam asal sebab thread sephia berkaitan dengan sejarah dunia thread asal berkaitan alam melayu..

i don't know why modurator  put my threads in ur threads.....:setuju:

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Post on 15-4-2006 11:36 AM |All posts

Roman ancient weapons

Originally posted by sephia_liza at 3-4-2006 12:40 PM

Roman men and women, like other Indo-Europeans, originally seem to have worn a large piece of wool, wrapped around themselves.  ...

Roman Lorica Segmenta :- It is believed that Lorica Segmenta was introduced in the ranks of Roman Army during the 1st Century AD. It was widely used at the heights of the Roman Empire. Though it could never replace the mail (Lorica Hamata) and scale armour (Lorica Squamata). For the modern mind Lorica signifies the Roman soldiers. Our Lorica Segmenta is closely copied from Lorica found in Newstead, Scotland, dates from 2 nd Century AD.
Made with 18 Gauge Steel. Supplied with simple polish and with a protective coating of oil/grease/lacquer for more historical authenticity.

Roman Helmet w/Hair w/Steel Strip on top :- This helmet was used by High Rank Officer's in the Roman Army. Made with 18 Gauge Steel.

Celtic Sword :- This Sword was used by the renound Celtic Warriors around 200 B.C. The classic leaf shaped blade is 23 inches long. Around the guard area is a U shaped Steel piece rivetted to the base of the blade. It has a nice wooden grip covered with leather with three Brass rings. The blade tang is bolted to a Solid Brass pommel. Supplied with a Black Leather Scabbard with a Brass ring on the top.
Blade is made of EN 45 High Carbon Tempered Steel.

Roman Gladius Sword :- This Sword was used by Roman soldiers. This Sword has round wooden pommel and wooden hilt. Below the wooden hilt there is a brass piece. This Sword has light weight and was easy to use. Handle is made of wood covered with leather supplied with brown leather scabbard with two Brass Rings. Blade is made of EN 45 High Carbon Tempered Steel.

Celtic Sword :- This sword responds to customer demand created by the popularity of Celtic Reinactment. This Celtic Sword features hilt and pommel made of solid Brass Hardware and with a wooden grip, supplied with a leather sheath. Blade is made of EN 45 High Carbon Tempered Steel.

Roman Sword :- Used by Roman Army. This Sword has Three fullers. First fuller is running on the top section of the blade and other two are running parallel to each other from top to bottom.

The Gladius was the blade that conquered the known world, and changed little from pre-Christian times to the fourth century AD. It's popularity was due to its effectiveness and relatively low production cost, but eventually it gave way to longer blades as steelcraft enabled swords to be made strong enough but light enough to stand the rigours of battle. In its day it was one of the few weapons that wouldn't bend or break when striking metal armour or shield rims. This Gladius comes with an ornate wooden grip and the scabbard has a brass covered mouth and chape.

[ Last edited by  sephia_liza at 15-4-2006 11:45 AM ]

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Post on 15-4-2006 11:57 AM |All posts


Macedonian Full size Helmet with griffin crest
Ancient Greek life size helmet from Macedonia
of Alexander the Great
dated 330 B.C.

Corinthian Full size Helmet
Ancient Greek life size helmet from
the Peloponnesian city of Corinth, dated 540 B.C., specially processed with a special archaic patina.

Thespeian Full size Helmet
Ancient Greek life size helmet from the city of Thespeia, member of the Greek force that defeated the Persians,
dated 480 B.C.,
the year of the battle of Thermopylae

Royal Corinthian Full size Helmet with plume
Ancient Greek Royal life size helmet from the the the Peloponnesian city of Corinth
dated 540 B.C.

Royal Spartan Full size Helmet
Ancient Greek Royal life size helmet from the the famous city of Sparta, dated 490 B.C.,
the time of the Persian wars

Spartan Full size Hoplite Helmet
Ancient Greek life size helmet from
the famous city of Sparta, dated 490 B.C.,
the time of the Persian wars

Athenian Full size Officer's Helmet
Ancient Greek life size helmet from Athens,
the cradle of Democracy, dated 440 B.C.,
the time of Pericles

Achilles Full size Helmet
Ancient Greek life size helmet, from Thessalia.
Reputedly the helmet worn by Achilles at the Trojan war, dated 1100 BC

Olympian Full size Helmet
Ancient Greek life size helmet from Olympia,
home of the ancient Olympic Games,
dated 410 B.C.

Arcadian Full size Helmet with elevated crest
Ancient Greek life size helmet from Arcadia,
in the Pelponnese, dated 550 B.C.

Roman Full size Helmet
Ancient Roman life size helmet
dated 80 B.C.

Thracean Full size Helmet with griffin crest
Ancient Greek life size helmet from Thrace,
in Northern Greece, dated 510 B.C.

Corinthian Full size Helmet
with plume
Ancient Greek life size helmet from
the Peloponnesian city of Corinth, dated 420 B.C.,

Chalkidean Full size Helmet
Ancient Greek life size helmet from
the city of Chalkis, dated 380 B.C

Cretan Full size Helmet
Ancient Greek life size helmet from
the island of Crete, dated 1100 B.C.,
the Minoan era

Delphian Full size Helmet with engraved owl
Ancient Greek life size helmet from the
city of Delphi, home of the famous oracle of Apollo,
dated 440 B.C.

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RinduKu Menggamit Pulang

Rank: 14Rank: 14Rank: 14Rank: 14

Post on 15-4-2006 12:02 PM |All posts
Originally posted by HangPC2 at 12-4-2006 10:05 AM

Tolong asing balik macam asal sebab thread sephia berkaitan dengan sejarah dunia thread asal berkaitan alam melayu..

Originally posted by sephia_liza at 12-4-2006 11:58 AM

i don't know why modurator  put my threads in ur threads.....:setuju:

rasional mok nik merged thread ini adalah atas dasar tajuk yang sama, semuanya membincangkan tentang cara hidup yang merangkumi Pakaian/Aksesori/Senjata/Pengangkutan/Gaya Hidup Masyarakat Zaman Silam. Dalam kontek masyarakat silam ini termasuklah tamadun Alam Melayu, Asia Tenggara dan Eropah.

Mok nik rasa tak salah kalau dimerged atas tajuk yang sama cuma tamadun yang berlainan. Senang utk melihat perbezaan dan persamaan cara hidup masyarakat di tamadunb yang berlainan.
blog antik & english home decor :

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Post on 15-4-2006 12:04 PM |All posts

Full Body Armour

Royal Spartan Cuirass
dated 480 BC

Royal Corinthian Muscle Armour
dated 540 BC

Spartan Leather Cuirass
Made of hardened leather, breast and backplate are adjustable with two straps and buckles at the sides and one at the shoulders.

Greek Armour Belt
Made of leather and brass.

Spartan scaled armour
Adjustable with two straps and buckles at the sides and one at the shoulders.

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RinduKu Menggamit Pulang

Rank: 14Rank: 14Rank: 14Rank: 14

Post on 15-4-2006 12:05 PM |All posts
tolong bagi link web setiap posting iyer
kita sama-sama beri penghargaan kepada empunya asal artikal
blog antik & english home decor :

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Post on 15-4-2006 01:14 PM |All posts


Originally posted by mok_nik at 15-4-2006 12:05 PM
tolong bagi link web setiap posting iyer
kita sama-sama beri penghargaan kepada empunya asal artikal

but i like posting picture like this...;)... ok....i will give link every posting..ok

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Post on 17-4-2006 02:44 PM |All posts

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Post on 20-4-2006 03:03 PM |All posts

more egyptian clothing

Originally posted by sephia_liza at 6-4-2006 11:25 AM

The wealthy did not show there wealth in wearing fancier,  expensive clothing, however they did wear gold jewelry, and there clo ...


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Post on 20-4-2006 03:07 PM |All posts



    Men and Women clothes differed from one another.  This is because there were laws that forbid men and women to exchange dress.  We know that their clothes were not identical, but all the evidence suggests that they were much alike in their general design.10

    There are many different sections of the Ancient Hebrew dress.  Some of these parts are the Inner Garment (also known as the tunic or shirt), the Outer Tunic or Robe, the Girdle, the Outer Garment or Mantle, and the Headdress.

    The tunic was a shirt that was worn next to the skin.  It was made out of leather, haircloth, wool, or linen.  Both sexes wore tunics but they was a difference in the style and pattern.11  For men, the tunic came down to the knees and was fastened at the waist by a girdle of leather or cloth.12  Female tunics were very similar to the males, but went down to their ankles.   

    There were and still are two different kinds of girdles.  These girdles are normally either made out of leather, linen, or even sometimes silk.  For the most part, girdles served as pouch to keep money and other things that an individual might need.  It was also used to fasten a mans sword to his body.  Hence the girdle was a very important part of a mans attire.13

    The outer garment (kesut) also covered one while sleeping and was the final and most important part of ones wardrobe.14  The male and female version of the outer garment were also similar but were different in style.  There were also different types of outer garments.  For example, women wore special outwear when they were widowed.15  All outer garments went to right above the ankles and had a hood (women) or ended at the middle of the calf (man).

A drawing of Hebrew Males

A Drawing of Hebrew Females

Civilized (Poor) Female  

Civilized (Poor) Male

A picture of a wealthy male and female

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Post on 20-4-2006 03:18 PM |All posts

Clothing, Make Up and Jewelry of Ancient India

Ancient Indian garments generally used no stitching, even though Indians did have needles and knew about sewing. Most clothes were ready for wear as soon as they left the loom. The Dhoti, the Scarf or Uttariya, and the Turban, have never really disappeared from any part of India. Likewise, for women, the Dhoti or the Sari as the lower garments, combined with a Stanapatta or breast-band for covering the breasts, forms a basic ensemble, and once again consists of garments that do not have to be stitched, the breast-garment being simply fastened in a knot at the back. And the Dhoti or the Sari worn covering both legs at the same time or, in the alternative, with one end of it passed between the legs and tucked at the back in the fashion that is still prevalent in large area of India. Indian men and women for these garments in the usually hot Indian climate. - dhoti when he speaks of 'turbans used for trousers', and a kaupina when he is speaking of 'a rag of two fingers' breadth bound over the loins.

Saris with many images of the famous drape. This researcher found about 100 different styles of drape - (Chantal Boulanger: Indian saris - research) See her Illustrated guide to the Indian Art of Draping - especially part 2 which has Families of Saris - and click on the links to see photographs of the many types of saris. Also see her Pictures of India

Bindi (dot on forehead) Traditionally a symbol of marriage (vivaha), but now worn by unmarried women

Both men and women wore ornaments

Gold ornaments are popular because the metal is believed to have the power purify anything it touches. Ornaments of gold and other metals, often combined with precious and semi-precious gems and beads, are popular with both men and women. Most ornaments are common across India, with variations in designs and material depending upon caste, religion, and geography. Gold is the most popular metal because it is believed to have the power to purify whatever it touches. For this reason, some gold ornament is usually worn against the skin at all times. Today ornaments are more popular with women than men, though, as paintings and sculptures attest men were once lavishly adorned too. In fact, the use of ornaments in India dates back to the ancient civilisations at Harrapa and Mohenjodaro. (See pictures of ancient gold and agate ornaments, bangles and rings, and a belt and a necklace and beaded hair ornaments worn by a man of Harrapa.)

gold and agate ornaments

This collection of gold and agate ornaments includes objects found at both Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. At the top are fillets of hammered gold that would have been worn around the forehead.
The other ornaments include bangles, chokers, long pendant necklaces, rings, earrings, conical hair ornaments, and broaches. Such ornaments were never buried with the dead, but were passed on from one generation to the next. These ornaments were hidden under the floors in the homes of wealthy merchants or goldsmiths.

Terra cotta bangles, Mohenjo-daro

Many of the terra cotta bangles were originally painted with black or red designs. Such ornaments are found in the thousands and may have been worn, broken and discarded much as glass bangles are used today throughout the subcontinent.


Two copper/bronze bangles, one from Harappa and the other from Mohenjo-daro. The bangles were made from a round hammered rod bent in a full circle. The space between the ends of the bangle would be pried apart to slip it over the wrist.

Dimensions of left bangle: 6 cm diameter, 0.73 cm thickness
National Museum, Karachi, HM 13 710
Dimensions of right bangle: 6.13 cm dia
Mohenjo-daro, DK 3457a
National Museum, Karachi, NMP 51.899, HM 13.809
Mackay 1938: 535, pl. CXXXVI, 60

Necklace or belt, Mohenjo-daro.

Carnelian and copper/bronze necklace or belt. With 42 long bicone carnelian beads, 72 spherical bronze beads, 6 bronze spacer beads, 2 half moon shaped bronze terminals, 2 hollow cylindrical bronze terminals. Hoard No. 2, DK Area, Room 1, House 1, Trench E.

Material: carnelian, bronze
Dimensions: carnelian beads range from 8.22 cm to 12.4 cm length, 0.9 cm max dia.; bronze beads c. .86 cm length, .85 cm dia.; bronze spacer beads 0.2 cm length, 0.63 cm width, 6.2 cm height; bronze moon shaped terminal 3.9 cm length, 0.8 cm thickness, 6.1 cm height; bronze hollow terminal, 2.39 cm length, 1.0 cm max di

Steatite beads

These tiny steatite beads were found in the Harappan cemetery and come from an elaborate hair ornament worn by a male individual. Each bead is less than .01 cm long and less than .01 cm diameter. A human hair is shown to give an idea of the minute size of these beads.

Traditionally, ornaments had economic significance for women. The ornaments given to her at her wedding constituted a daughter's inheritance from her father. Customarily land and other property was divided among the sons, though this no longer holds true. In addition, a bride's ornaments were financial security throughout her life.

Nose pin: More common than a nose ring, both are symbols of purity and marriage, though today many unmarried girls wear this adornment.

Necklace: These are popular across the country among girls and women of all ages. Necklaces are made of a variety of materials, ranging from glass beads to gold and diamonds. One special necklace, however, is the mangalasutra, worn only by married women. It is the Indian equivalent of the western wedding ring. Traditionally a woman wore it during her wedding ceremony and took it off only if her husband died.


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Post on 20-4-2006 03:24 PM |All posts
Bangles: Worn on the wrist, bangles are believed to be protective bands and women always wore them as symbolic guards over their husbands. As with other ornaments, bangles today are worn by women of all ages all over India and are made of silver, gold, wood, glass, and plastic, among other materials.
Ear rings: Rings, studs and other ornaments worn in the ears are popular all over the country. In fact, a girl's ears are usually pierced before her first birthday.
Other important ornaments are finger rings, toe rings and anklets. Rings for the fingers are again, of various materials and designs and worn by unmarried and married women. Since
The ring has become a common adornment, it is no longer considered a symbol of marriage
However, toe rings and anklets are still worn mostly by married women. Ornaments for the feet are usually made of silver because gold, being a 'pure' metal, was not supposed to be
worn on the feet. This privilege was given only to women of royal families.
In addition to these ornaments is the 'mangatika' or 'tikli'. This ornament, worn at the top of the forehead in the parting of the hair, is usually a small pendant on the end of a chain
that is clasped to the hair. Although traditionally this ornament was also worn as a symbol of marriage, today it is not so commonly worn even by married women.


Showering petals is also a form of blessing, as at the end of the ceremony, when all those present shower the Flowers bride and groom with petals. In the southern part of India, an important part of a woman's toilette is flowers in her hair.
Flowers are considered symbolic of life and happiness and are therefore an important aspect of any worship.

Eye make-up (kohl?)
eyeliner From the time a child is six days old, its mother applies kajal to its eyes and also a small black dot on the forehead to mar the child's beauty. This 'imperfection' is said to protect from evil.

dot on forehead of woman indicating married status, power, protection for her husband. It is applied by the husband as part of wedding ceremony.

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